Understanding Logistic Regression

Posted March 27, 2019 by Rokas Balsys

##### Vectorization with python:

In deep learning we usually deal with very large datasets. A non computationally optimal function can become a huge bottleneck in our algorithm and can result in a model that takes ages to run. When we are writing machine learning funcions, we must be sure that our code is computationally efficient so we always use vectorization.

To compare vectorized and not vectorized computation time we create random numbers between 11 and 99. We create two lists:

x1 = np.random.randint(low=11, high=99, size=10000)
x2 = np.random.randint(low=11, high=99, size=10000)


##### Lets compare DOT implementation with for loops and numpy library:

# CLASSIC DOT VECTORS IMPLEMENTATION
tic = time.time()
dot = 0
for i in range(len(x1)):
dot+= x1[i]*x2[i]
toc = time.time()
print("Computation time = ",1000*(toc - tic))

# VECTORIZED DOT IMPLEMENTATION
tic = time.time()
dot = np.dot(x1,x2)
toc = time.time()
print("Computation time = ",1000*(toc - tic))


We tried above code example with examples size=10000. Results were:
Computation time = 234.51972007751465
Computation time = 0.9977817535400391
From our results we can tell that np.dot is faster more than 200 times.

##### Lets compare OUTER implementation with for loops and numpy library:

# CLASSIC OUTER IMPLEMENTATION
tic = time.time()
outer = np.zeros((len(x1),len(x2))) # we create a len(x1)*len(x2) matrix with only zeros
for i in range(len(x1)):
for j in range(len(x2)):
outer[i,j] = x1[i]*x2[j]
toc = time.time()
print("Computation time = ",1000*(toc - tic))

# VECTORIZED OUTER IMPLEMENTATION
tic = time.time()
outer = np.outer(x1,x2)
toc = time.time()
print("Computation time = ",1000*(toc - tic))


We tried above code example with examples size=1000. Results were:
Computation time = 747.028112411499
Computation time = 3.990650177001953
From our results we can tell that np.outer is faster close to 200 times.

##### Lets compare ELEMENTWISE multiplication implementation with for loops and numpy library:

# CLASSIC ELEMENTWISE IMPLEMENTATION
tic = time.time()
mul = np.zeros(len(x1))
for i in range(len(x1)):
mul[i] = x1[i]*x2[i]
toc = time.time()
print("Computation time = ",1000*(toc - tic))

# VECTORIZED ELEMENTWISE IMPLEMENTATION
tic = time.time()
mul = np.multiply(x1,x2)
toc = time.time()
print("Computation time = ",1000*(toc - tic))


We tried above code example with examples size=500000. Results were:
Computation time = 334.1071605682373
Computation time = 1.9948482513427734
From our results we can tell that np.multiply is faster aournd 150 times.

##### Lets compare general DOT implementation with for loops and numpy library:

# CLASSIC GENERAL DOT IMPLEMENTATION
W = np.random.rand(3,len(x1)) # Random 3*len(x1) numpy array
tic = time.time()
gdot = np.zeros(W.shape)
for i in range(W.shape):
for j in range(len(x1)):
gdot[i] += W[i,j]*x1[j]
toc = time.time()
print("Computation time = ",1000*(toc - tic))

# VECTORIZED GENERAL DOT IMPLEMENTATION
tic = time.process_time()
dot = np.dot(W,x1)
toc = time.process_time()
print("Computation time = ",1000*(toc - tic))


We tried above code example with examples size=500000. Results were:
Computation time = 1468.2056903839111
Computation time = 3.125
From our results we can tell that general np.dot is faster around 500 times.

As you may have noticed, the vectorized implementation is much cleaner and more efficient. For bigger vectors and matrices, the differences in running time become even bigger.

Keep in mind that vectorization is very important in deep learning. It provides computational efficiency and clarity.
I hope that up to this point we have a little warm-up that will help you in the future. Right now we know what is sigmoid, sigmoid derivatives, array reshaping, rows normalization, what is broadcasting, softmax and vectorization. So in next tutorial we will start building gradient descent function where verything will be more exciting and interesting!