YOLOv4 with TensorFlow 2

Posted August 25 by Rokas Balsys

##### Increase YOLOv4 object detection speed on GPU with TensorRT

We already discussed YOLOv4 improvements from it's older version YOLOv3 in my previous tutorials, and we already know that now it's even better than before. Probably everyone who used YOLOv3 will move to YOLOv4, because it's one of the fastest object detection models that we may use for real-time applications. But in this tutorial, I would like to show you, how we can increase the speed of our object detection up to 3 times with **TensorRT**! In this tutorial, I will not cover how to install TensorRT.

TensorFlow is one of the most popular deep learning frameworks today, with tens of thousands of users worldwide. **TensorRT** is a deep learning platform that optimizes neural network models and speeds up performance for GPU inference in a simple way. The TensorFlow team worked with NVIDIA and added initial support for TensorRT in TensorFlow v1.7 and now it is ready in TensorFlow 2.0 and above.

So what is TensorRT? NVIDIA TensorRT is a high-performance inference optimizer and runtime that can be used to perform inference in lower precision (FP32, FP16 and INT8) on GPUs. Its integration with TensorFlow lets you apply TensorRT optimizations to your TensorFlow models with a few lines of code. We can get up to 8x higher performance than using only TensorFlow. The integration applies optimizations to the supported graphs, leaving unsupported operations untouched to be natively executed in TensorFlow.

##### How TensorRT optimizes TensorFlow graphs?

We input our already trained TensorFlow network and other parameters like inference batch size and precision. TensorRT does optimization (image bellow) and builds an execution plan which can be used as-is or serialized and saved to disk and used at a later time. I haven't tried but I think that a Deep Learning framework is not required at Inference time. We can just use the execution plan output by TensorRT and we are good to go. We can use it on servers, Desktops, or even on Embedded devices.

##### The Optimization process

This is where the magic happens. TensorRT performs several important transformations and optimizations to the neural network graph (several images below). TensorRT, where possible convolution, bias, and ReLU layers are fused to form a single layer:

The bellow figures explain the vertical fusion optimization that TensorRT does. Convolution(C), Bias(B) and Activation(R, ReLU in this case) are all collapsed into one single node (implementation wise this would mean a single CUDA kernel launch for C, B and R):

Another transformation is horizontal layer fusion, or layer aggregation, along with the required division of aggregated layers to their respective output. Horizontal layer fusion improves performance by combining layers that take the same source tensor and apply the same operations with similar parameters. Note that these graph optimizations do not change the underlying computation in the graph: instead, they look to restructure the graph to perform the operations much faster and more efficiently:

##### Convert TensorFlow to TensorRT model

Suppose we already have a trained TensorFlow network, first we convert that model to the frozen (.pb) model. In my YOLOv4 implementation I do this step in the following way:

import tensorflow as tf from yolov3.yolov4 import Create_Yolo from yolov3.utils import load_yolo_weights from yolov3.configs import * if YOLO_TYPE == "yolov4": Darknet_weights = YOLO_V4_TINY_WEIGHTS if TRAIN_YOLO_TINY else YOLO_V4_WEIGHTS if YOLO_TYPE == "yolov3": Darknet_weights = YOLO_V3_TINY_WEIGHTS if TRAIN_YOLO_TINY else YOLO_V3_WEIGHTS yolo = Create_Yolo(input_size=YOLO_INPUT_SIZE) if YOLO_CUSTOM_WEIGHTS == False: load_yolo_weights(yolo, Darknet_weights) # use Darknet weights else: yolo.load_weights(YOLO_CUSTOM_WEIGHTS) # use custom weights yolo.summary() yolo.save(f'./checkpoints/{YOLO_TYPE}-{YOLO_INPUT_SIZE}') print(f"model saves to /checkpoints/{YOLO_TYPE}-{YOLO_INPUT_SIZE}")

Now that we have our working frozen model, in order to get the benefits from TensorRT, we need to convert it to a model that runs the operations using TensorRT. I use the following conversion commands in my implementation:

import tensorflow as tf import numpy as np physical_devices = tf.config.experimental.list_physical_devices('GPU') if len(physical_devices) > 0: tf.config.experimental.set_memory_growth(physical_devices[0], True) from yolov3.configs import * from tensorflow.python.compiler.tensorrt import trt_convert as trt def calibration_input(): for i in range(100): batched_input = np.random.random((1, YOLO_INPUT_SIZE, YOLO_INPUT_SIZE, 3)).astype(np.float32) batched_input = tf.constant(batched_input) yield (batched_input,) conversion_params = trt.DEFAULT_TRT_CONVERSION_PARAMS conversion_params = conversion_params._replace(max_workspace_size_bytes=4000000000) conversion_params = conversion_params._replace(precision_mode=YOLO_TRT_QUANTIZE_MODE) conversion_params = conversion_params._replace(max_batch_size=8) if YOLO_TRT_QUANTIZE_MODE == 'INT8': conversion_params = conversion_params._replace(use_calibration=True) converter = trt.TrtGraphConverterV2(input_saved_model_dir=f'./checkpoints/{YOLO_TYPE}-{YOLO_INPUT_SIZE}', conversion_params=conversion_params) if YOLO_TRT_QUANTIZE_MODE == 'INT8': converter.convert(calibration_input_fn=calibration_input) else: converter.convert() converter.save(output_saved_model_dir=f'./checkpoints/{YOLO_TYPE}-trt-{YOLO_TRT_QUANTIZE_MODE}-{YOLO_INPUT_SIZE}') print(f'Done Converting to TensorRT, model saved to: /checkpoints/{YOLO_TYPE}-trt-{YOLO_TRT_QUANTIZE_MODE}-{YOLO_INPUT_SIZE}')

We explicitly tell to run the TF-TRT converter by specifying the conversion_params configurations:

- precision_mode tells the converter which precision to use, currently, it supports FP32, FP16 and INT8;
- max_batch_size tells the maximum batch size of the input. The converter requires that all tensors that will be handled by TensorRT have their first dimension as the batch dimension, and this parameter tells it what the max value would be during inference. If the actual max batch size during inference is known and this value matches that, the converted model will be optimal. Note that the converted model cannot handle inputs with batch size larger than what is specified here, but smaller is fine;
- max_workspace_size_bytes - integer, maximum GPU memory size available for TensorRT. Set it to 4000000000 for a 12GB GPU in order to allocate ~4GB for the TensorRT engines;
- use_calibration - This argument is ignored if precision_mode is not INT8. If set to True, a calibration graph will be created to calibrate the missing ranges. The calibration graph must be converted to an inference graph while converting TF to TRT by giving calibration_input_fn with calibration data. If set to False, quantization nodes will be expected for every tensor in the graph (excluding those which will be fused). If a range is missing, an error will occur. Why we need calibration? We'll talk about it later.

About other configurations, you can read on the following link.

##### TensorRT results on YOLOv4 model

As you already should have understood from this tutorial title, I converted YOLOv4 to TensorRT FP32, FP16 and INT8 models. Filled tables bellow and now we can compare their FPS and mAP50 performance. These results were measured on 1080TI GPU.

So, first I would like to say that it was quite strange for me that FP16 was a little worse performing than FP32, we can see this from the FPS table. The mAP was actually the same because FP32 and FP16 have a large number after the decimal point, so there is no significant change. But when we look at INT8 mAP, we see quite a large drop in model accuracy:

But everything depends on what purpose you will use object detection model. You need to decide, you need accuracy or more like a real-time detection speed. You can try to find the gold point that fits for you between accuracy and speed. I would use the YOLOv4 INT8 model with a large input size (608x608), because this would keep a quite high accuracy and speed, that I could use for real-time detections.

While using object detection, execution time, power and accuracy are critical in real-time applications. Given the amount of computing required we would like to optimize our inference in favor of time and power without hurting the accuracy. So, we can move to an 8-bit representation of parameters and activation at inference time. As you can see from the above results, the 8-bit inference needs a lesser cycle for memory to fetch compared to 32 bit. As a result, speed increases twice, but we lose about 15% of accuracy.

##### How do we get that INT8 Frames per second?

The main question is, how TensoRT optimizes NN to get that results. TensorRT with INT8 precision mode just needs to implement an interface that provides calibration information and some caching related code. Before that let's see the steps TensorRTfollows to do the 32-bit to 8-bit mapping.

The candidates for mapping are Inputs to each layer (which would be input to the first layer and activation for the rest) and learned parameters. The simplest form of mapping/quantization is a linear quantization:

*FP32 Tensor (T) = Scale_Factor(SF) * 8-bit Tensor(T) + FP32_bias (B)*

Let's make it simpler, experiments have shown that the bias term does not really add any value. So, we can get rid of it:

*FP32 Tensor (T) = SF * T*

**Note** - *SF* here is the scaling factor for each Tensor in each of the layers. The problem here is to find the scaling factor. You can read more in detail about the whole process in following NVIDIA slides. But authors suggest one simple approach as shown in the figure below:

Above is shown a simple map of -|max| and |max| FP32 value in a tensor to -127 and 127 respectively. The rest of the values are linearly scaled accordingly. But experiments showed that this kind of mapping results in significant accuracy loss. So, TensoRT tried to do the following instead:

Now, instead of looking at the |max| values, they use a fixed threshold and then do the mapping as before. Any value that lies in the threshold is adjusted to either -127 or 127. For eg., in the above figure, the three "red crosses" are mapped to -127.

So the next question is how do they find that optimal value of threshold T? So, we have FP32 tensors that are best represented in FP32 distribution. But, we want to represent them in a different distribution (8-bit) which is not the best distribution. We want to measure how different these distributions are and want to minimize that difference. TensorRT uses Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL-divergence) to measure the difference and aims to minimize it.

So, our goal is to minimize the KL-divergence between FP32 values and corresponding 8-bit values. TensorRT uses a simple iterative search for minimum divergence, the steps are as follows:

#### More about INT8 calibration

TensorRT employs an experiment-based iterative search for threshold values. Calibration forms the main part of it. We provide a sample dataset (ideally would be a subset of Validation set) called the "calibration dataset" which TensorRT uses to do what is called a Calibration. TensorRT runs **FP32** inference on the calibration dataset. Collects histograms of activations and generates a set of 8-bit representations with different thresholds and chooses the one which has the least KL-divergence error. The KL-divergence is between the reference distribution (which is the FP32 activations) and the quantized distribution (which is the 8-bit quantized activations). More about INT8 and precision in NVIDIA GPUs, you can read on this link.

##### Practical YOLOv4 TensorRT implementation:

As I told you before, I am not showing how to install TensorRT, it has many dependencies for what OS you use, what Cuda version, drivers and etc. The best way is to google it.

So, if you already have installed TensorRT you can try my YOLOv4 TensorFlow implementation and whole conversion process.

First, you should download the weights of your model and make sure that detection works on your system:

python detection_demo.py

In the tools folder, there are 2 needed scripts that I mentioned above Convert_to_pb.py and Convert_to_TRT.py. Before using them we need to change a few lines in the configs.py file. I will convert the YOLOv4 model with input size 608 to the TensorRT INT8 model, so I change parameters accordingly:

YOLO_TYPE = "yolov4" # yolov4 or yolov3 YOLO_FRAMEWORK = "trt" # "tf" or "trt" YOLO_TRT_QUANTIZE_MODE = "INT8" # INT8, FP16, FP32 YOLO_INPUT_SIZE = 608

Now we need to convert our YOLO model to the frozen (.pb) model by running following script in terminal:

python tools/Convert_to_pb.py

When the conversion finishes in the checkpoints folder should be created a new folder called yolov4–608. This is the frozen model that we will use to get the TensorRT model. To do so, we write in terminal:

python tools/Convert_to_TRT.py

This may take a while, but when it finishes you should see a new folder in checkpoints folder called yolov4-trt-INT8-608, this is our TensorRT model. Now you can test it the same way as with the usual YOLO model. Once again open configs.py file and change YOLO_CUSTOM_WEIGHTS = 'checkpoints/yolov4-trt-INT8-608'. Here should be written our TensorRT model location and name which we are planning to run.

Now you can run detection_demo.py, uncomment detect_video line and check the results, mine are the following:

So, detection FPS was around 35, and total FPS with bounding box drawing was around 19 FPS (hope to fix this drop later with multiprocessing or by optimizing code), satisfying results! Then I ran object_tracker.py:

And also received quite nice results, theoretically, detection FPS should have been the same. That total FPS is lower it's ok because tracker runs two models, one for detection and one for tracking. Also, keep in mind that these FPS are for 608x608 input size.

##### Converting YOLO to TensorRT short instructions

I will give two examples, both will be for YOLOv4 model,quantize_mode=INT8 and model input size will be 608.

#### Default weights from COCO dataset:

- Download weights from instructions on GitHub;
- In configs.py script choose your YOLO_TYPE;
- In configs.py script set YOLO_INPUT_SIZE = 608;
- In configs.py script set YOLO_FRAMEWORK = "trt";
- From main directory in terminal type python tools/Convert_to_pb.py;
- From main directory in terminal type python tools/Convert_to_TRT.py;
- In configs.py script set YOLO_CUSTOM_WEIGHTS = f'checkpoints/{YOLO_TYPE}-trt-{YOLO_TRT_QUANTIZE_MODE}–{YOLO_INPUT_SIZE}';
- Now you can run detection_demo.py, best to test with detect_video function.

#### Custom trained YOLO weights:

- Download weights from instructions on GitHub;
- In configs.py script choose your YOLO_TYPE;
- In configs.py script set YOLO_INPUT_SIZE = 608;
- Train custom YOLO model with instructions on GitHub;
- In configs.py script set YOLO_CUSTOM_WEIGHTS = f"{YOLO_TYPE}_custom";
- In configs.py script make sure that TRAIN_CLASSES is with your custom classes text file;
- From main directory in terminal type python tools/Convert_to_pb.py;
- From main directory in terminal type python tools/Convert_to_TRT.py;
- In configs.py script set YOLO_FRAMEWORK = "trt";
- In configs.py script set YOLO_CUSTOM_WEIGHTS = f'checkpoints/{YOLO_TYPE}-trt-{YOLO_TRT_QUANTIZE_MODE}–{YOLO_INPUT_SIZE}';
- Now you can run detection_custom.py, to test custom trained and converted TensorRT model.

##### Conclusion:

So, all in all, there is plenty of scope for optimization in the TensorFlow framework. Given TensorRT optimization and the right hardware (GPU which supports DP4A), you can not only push the GPU to its limits but at the same time keep it efficient.

Also, as a demonstration in this tutorial, the performance numbers only apply to the model that I am using and the machine that runs this example, but it does show the performance benefits of using TF-TRT.

I believe you'll see substantial benefits by integrating TensorRT with TensorFlow when using NVIDIA GPUs. Additional information on TensorRT can be found on NVIDIA's TensorRT page at https://developer.nvidia.com/tensorrt.

Also, I tested TensorRT not because I wanted to write this tutorial, but because I wanted to come back to my old shooting game aimbot tutorial, where I couldn't do any improvements because of low FPS. Now, when I have tested TensorRT benefits, it's FPS improvements and I have even better YOLOv4 model than YOLOv3, I'll test it out! I hope these benefits will make my aimbot even better! So, wait for it in the coming tutorials!